model is a problem solving approach to designing the motivational aspects
of learning environments to stimulate and sustain students’ motivation
to learn (Keller, 1983, 1984, 1987). There are two major parts to the
model. The first is a set of categories representing the components
of motivation. These categories are the result of a synthesis of the
research on human motivation. The second part of the model is a systematic
design process that assists you in creating motivational enhancements
that are appropriate for a given set of learners. The synthesis allows
you to identify the various elements of student motivation, and the
design process helps you profile the motivational characteristics of
students in a given learning environment and then design motivational
tactics that are appropriate for them. The model has been used and validated
by teachers and trainers in elementary and secondary schools, colleges,
and universities, and in adult learning settings in corporations, government
agencies, nonprofit organizations, and military organization. In other
words, in virtually every setting in which there is a requirement for
people to learn. It has also been used around the world on virtually
every continent, and has been used extensively in Asia, Europe, and
Latin America. Numerous research reports verify its validity and usefulness.
of the categories of the ARCS model and the design process are contained
in the remaining two parts of this folder. Each of those parts contains
references for further reading. Following are three references mentioned
above that describe the theoretical foundation of the ARCS model and
the applied version of it.
J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth
(Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of
their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
J. M. (1984). The use of the ARCS model of motivation in teacher training.
In K. Shaw & A. J. Trott (Eds.), Aspects of Educational Technology
Volume XVII: staff Development and Career Updating. London: Kogan
J. M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational
design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2 –
2006 John M. Keller, All rights reserved.
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